Heroes & Villains - Hubert Zemke

Pilot, Prisoner, Pugilist, Paragon

I had a lot of trouble coming up with a way to introduce Hubert Zemke. I wanted to talk about how he excelled at various things. I wanted to say some nonsense about rising above and beyond his already impressive peer group. But none of it was quite right.

I believe I have come up with an introduction that *is* quite right.

Hubert Zemke was an impossibly useful human being.

  Examining the .50 caliber machine guns on his P-47C Thunderbolt.

Examining the .50 caliber machine guns on his P-47C Thunderbolt.

Zemke was born in 1914, in Missoula, Montana. Or, to put it in 20's-40's terms, Zemke came from The-Bumfuck-Middle-of-Nowheresville. Missoula is currently a decently sized city with an airport, so we don't get to call it that anymore, despite it being in Montana. Also, he was the son of a pair of German immigrants, the irony of which was probably not lost on him.

As a kid, Zemke was bullied at school, at least according to the National Aviation Hall of Fame. Whether or not this fueled his interest in boxing is debatable. Sports explicitly dedicated to injuring other people were more popular back in the day. Still, it meant he knew how to handle bullies, boxing or not.

In 1936, Zemke entered the Army Air Corps, and a year later was a fully qualified fighter pilot, assigned to a squadron of P-40 Kittyhawks in Texas.

  I couldn't find and verify any pictures of a 37th Pursuit Group P-40, so here's just a basic picture of a P-40 to give you an idea of what it was like. The guns located in the nose indicate that this is a very early variant. Most of the variants used in WWII had 4-6 .50 caliber guns in the wings instead.

I couldn't find and verify any pictures of a 37th Pursuit Group P-40, so here's just a basic picture of a P-40 to give you an idea of what it was like. The guns located in the nose indicate that this is a very early variant. Most of the variants used in WWII had 4-6 .50 caliber guns in the wings instead.

In 1940, the United States entered a long running trend of foreign policy that hinged on not really knowing what "neutral" means. To express the nation's uninvolvement in the war, President Roosevelt sent representatives to countries engaged in combat with Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan to learn and exchange military theory. This occurred in tandem with "lend-lease", which, to keep it simple, was functionally the US giving free weapons and equipment to Allied nations.

Zemke was sent to England to act as a liaison to the RAF. He would be one of the first American pilots to see how the Luftwaffe operated, and how the Brits developed counter-tactics to those operations. Without flying a single combat mission, Zemke had become a valuable asset to the Army Air Corps.

A year later, he was sent to the USSR to do the same thing. Zemke had a certain degree of fluency in the Russian language. That and his training on the P-40 meant he was exactly the right man to go teach the Russians how to fly the P-40. Zemke would later have "мой товарищ" painted on the side of his P-47 Thunderbolt, to celebrate the connection he made through the imminent Iron Curtain.

  That translates to "My Comerade". Zemke's fluency would serve him well, even after his time in the USSR was up.

That translates to "My Comerade". Zemke's fluency would serve him well, even after his time in the USSR was up.

On December 7th of 1941, the Japanese launched a daring strike on US Navy ships stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Four days later, Nazi Germany declared war on the United States. It seemed America's weak attempts at neutrality weren't going to be enough to stop Hitler and Hirohito. Someone needed to go over there and help the the Allies wreck the Axis' shit.

In March of 1942, Zemke was assigned to the 56th Fighter Group, transferring to P-47C Thunderbolts, and deploying to Europe in January of 1943. The P-47 was a heavy bastard of a fighter, armed with 8 Browning AN/M2 .50 caliber machine guns in the wings, and capable of carrying 2500 lbs. (Just over 1100kg) of bombs and rockets for ground attack. The Thunderbolt also boasted good performance at low and high altitudes, decent range for a fighter, and exceptional durability for a fighter. The only downside was the somewhat high cost.

  Zemke's P-47C-5. Image from http://www.gaetanmarie.com

Zemke's P-47C-5. Image from http://www.gaetanmarie.com

By October, Zemke was an ace and his "Wolfpack" squadron was developing new tactics of air combat that would shape how every other fighter unit in the world operated. One of the more innovative tactics was the "Zemke Fan". The Fan was an arrangement of 3 fighter squadrons. The lead squad flew low, with the next squad flying above, and the last squad flying high as a reserve for the other two.

The positioning and doctrine of this tactic meant the Zemke Fan could cut off interceptors from all manner of approaches without leaving escorted bombers vulnerable. The stacked squadrons could reinforce any squad below them if the need arose while the other regrouped.

Later, in August of '44, Zemke transferred to the 479th Fighter Group. The 479th was being issued the new P-51 Mustang to replace their P-38 Lightnings, and he wanted to get him some of that. Unfortunately, Zemke's plane was damaged on October 30th, and subsequently caught in a thunderstorm.

He had no choice but to ditch over enemy territory. Unable to evade capture, Zemke's role in Europe's air war was over with 17..75 victories credited and over 150 missions flown. His role of being impossibly useful, however, remained unchanged.

Just as an aside, Russian wasn't the only other language Zemke knew. His German parents meant he spoke the language of his captors. This was good for Zemke. Not only could he better communicate with the guards (and interrogators), he could also endear himself to them and start building up favors for himself and the other prisoners.

Though not as imperiled as, say, Polish Jews, captured airmen in Germany had two huge burdens to deal with.

First, there was a chance they'd be caught by the SS and not the Luftwaffe or Wehrmacht. The Luftwaffe and Wehrmacht drew from the greater population, and had people who appreciated the experiences of the soldiers and pilots they apprehended. The SS drew from dedicated members of the Nazi party, and encouraged a brand of hatred as of yet unmatched by any other organization.

The second is that the US and UK were bombing the ever-loving hell out of Germany's industrial infrastructure. The collateral damage was extensive. The Nazis used this fact as propaganda against the Allies, but it was also not an unreasonable thing to be upset about. More than one captured pilot and crew-member was subjected to torture (or a mob beating) by people wanting to get even for the bombing.

 

  Zemke's mugshot while being taken into German custody. You know, he kind of looks like Tom Hanks.

Zemke's mugshot while being taken into German custody. You know, he kind of looks like Tom Hanks.

Zemke was shipped off to Stalag Luft 1. It wasn't a concentration camp, but it wasn't great by any stretch of the imagination. Stalag Luft 1 was also located in Barth, Germany. Barth is in a part of Germany that would best be described as "The shitty cold part for most of the year".

He also spent some time with Hanns Scharff, the legendary interrogator of the Luftwaffe, known for being able to get all kinds of useful information from prisoners. Scharff's technique was brutal. He took efforts to ensure prisoners were treated humanely, and then he'd get in casual and polite conversations with them, sometimes after getting them drunk. Scharff was a trailblazer in the field of interrogation, and his methods of "treating people like people" and "malt liquor" live on to this day in the form of things that are eschewed in favor of unreliable torture.

  Scharff is on the left, an American POW is in the middle, and a Luftwaffe officer on the right.     "YOU SHALL TELL US WHAT WE WISH TO KNOW, OR HERR OFFICER AND I SHALL HAVE TO... uh... make a note of that and send you back with some coffee to share with the others."

Scharff is on the left, an American POW is in the middle, and a Luftwaffe officer on the right.

"YOU SHALL TELL US WHAT WE WISH TO KNOW, OR HERR OFFICER AND I SHALL HAVE TO... uh... make a note of that and send you back with some coffee to share with the others."

Scharff knew a lot about Zemke and the 56th Fighter Group. In fact, aside from what he knew as an intelligence worker, it seemed that Scharff was a genuine fan of pilots in general. Still, underneath his amicable exterior and distinctly un-Nazi concern for his enemy's well-being, Scharff was still an interrogator.

In Zemke's own words:

"There is no doubt in my mind that he did extract something from me, but I haven’t the slightest idea what. If you talked to him about the weather or anything else, he no doubt could get some information or confirmation from it. He reminded me of the typical American insurance salesman who left you with a $10,000 insurance policy after getting his foot in the door. Though he never seemed to press for information, he’d pop an innocent remark out of the blue, making me think twice."

Whether Zemke actually gave anything away to Scharff, it definitely wasn't enough to change the balance of the war. After the war, Zemke would invite Scharff to dinner. Also Scharff would design the mosaic inside Cinderella's Castle for Disney World in Orlando. But that's a story for another time.

At the rank of Colonel, Zemke was the highest ranking Allied officer at Stalag Luft 1. Under the Geneva Convention, that meant that the US prisoners all reported to him, *and* the Germans were obligated to respect his rank in matters of prisoner interaction. To translate, that means that Zemke was only obligated to salute and hold attention for a German soldier only if their rank exceeded Colonel. In fact, Zemke technically didn't have to even speak to a German soldier of a lower rank. Most of the Allied officers took pleasure in exploiting these rules to annoy their captors. While risky, these shows of defiance were a source of inspiration to the rest of the prisoners.

In addition to shows of defiance, Zemke found other ways to boost morale. One notable example was the staging of a boxing match. Zemke's opponent was drawn from a pool of volunteers with backgrounds in boxing (or not, anyone who wanted to throw their name in was able). The name drawn for the bout was Major Cyrus Manierre. Let's talk about Manierre for a minute. Stalag Luft 1 was a cesspool of fascinating people.

Major Manierre was a captured OSS agent who had been working with the French resistance. But the Germans didn't know this. The Major had spun a convincing story of being a downed bomber pilot, and was able to back that up thanks to the fact that his brother was a bomber pilot. Cyrus's brother, Bill, was, in fact, a bomber pilot who had been downed over Germany and captured. When the Germans found out they had captured two pilots who were also brothers, they made a big point of "reuniting the brothers", then shipped them to Stalag Luft 1. If they had known Cyrus was really an OSS agent, they'd have turned him over to the SS, and he almost certainly would have been hanged.

Major Manierre outweighed Colonel Zemke by a fair margin, and also had 4 inches of height on the Colonel. Although both men had boxing experience, Zemke's greater experience  was more than enough to close the weight gap. After Manierre held his own in the first round, he began to tire and Zemke would win by a unanimous vote from the appointed judges.

  Based on the one photograph of the event, I'm guessing that what really happened is that two malnourished men put on boxing gloves they got from somewhere and traded punches, and it was the best entertainment anyone at the camp, prisoner or guard, had gotten for a long time.

Based on the one photograph of the event, I'm guessing that what really happened is that two malnourished men put on boxing gloves they got from somewhere and traded punches, and it was the best entertainment anyone at the camp, prisoner or guard, had gotten for a long time.

Soon, the year was 1945, and the Allies were closing in from the East, South, and West. The so-called "master race" was having its ass handed to it by a group of starving, scared Soviets on one front, and a huge, multinational military that was quietly starting to de-segregate on the other front. It was a bad year for nationalism and racism. It was also a bad year to be a prisoner to the Axis.

POW camps all over Germany were being liquidated, and prisoners were being forced to move hundreds of miles to alternate camps further away from the advancing armies. In April, the German officer in charge of Stalag Luft 1 informed Zemke that they were to be moved to Hamburg. Zemke refused to follow this plan. Instead, Zemke convinced the Commandant that it was in his best interest to get his 200 or so poorly armed men and bugger off before the Russians showed up.

The Commandant agreed and left the camp with his men. 9,000 Allied airmen (and at least one spy pretending to be an airman) now controlled Stalag Luft 1, under the direction of Colonel Zemke. In the event the Germans had been stubborn, Zemke had spent the past several months getting weapons smuggled in and stashed around the camp. Fortunately, it didn't come to that.

On May 1st, the Soviets finally showed up, led by General Marozil, a man I am having an astounding amount if difficulty finding any information about. The liberating Soviets immediately set about planning to move all the prisoners to Odessa. Zemke, again annoyed at the prospect of a pointless march to somewhere worse, also refused this plan. The Colonel's mastery of the Russian language meant he could better communicate the needs of the prisoners to the Soviets.

  I'm going off topic here, but someday I'm going to track down more information on General Marozil. All I have to go on currently is that he worked for Borisov, his name might be Uzbeki, and there's two photographs of him with the Stalag Luft 1 prisoners.

I'm going off topic here, but someday I'm going to track down more information on General Marozil. All I have to go on currently is that he worked for Borisov, his name might be Uzbeki, and there's two photographs of him with the Stalag Luft 1 prisoners.

Once the containment fences had been ripped down, the Soviets asked Zemke what he needed, and his first answer was food for 9000 men. The Russians went into the surrounding countryside and rounded up several hundred cows and pigs.

Actually, according to one account, the cows were more than enough, but a Soviet soldier rolled up with a couple hundred pigs and explained that he couldn't reach the goal of 1000 pigs. When a prisoner explained that the cows were enough, the Soviet replied "The General has ordered me to get you the pigs." So this prisoner went into the abandoned admin office and used a typewriter to work up a receiving message saying all 1000 had been delivered. He probably saved that Soviet a lot of grief.

  Here's Zemke with some more Soviets. Note F.LT. Delarge. Delarge also spoke Russian, so he could represent the prisoners alongside Zemke. Also note that officer on the left who didn't hold still for the camera. And finally, note General Borisov sitting to Zemke's right (viewer's left).

Here's Zemke with some more Soviets. Note F.LT. Delarge. Delarge also spoke Russian, so he could represent the prisoners alongside Zemke. Also note that officer on the left who didn't hold still for the camera. And finally, note General Borisov sitting to Zemke's right (viewer's left).

Zemke's next objective after feeding his men was to let the Western Allies know where they were. He gave this task to RAF Group Captain Weir, who went to the Russians to further convince them that moving everyone to Odessa was a waste of time, and that what they really needed was a working telephone or radio. Between Zemke and Weir, they finally convinced the Soviets to get in touch with General Eisenhower, who had several hundred B-17s sent to a nearby airfield to bring the prisoners home.

To summarize Hubert Zemke's role in the War, I'll make a bulleted list. This list can also be my TL;DR, for the impatient

  • Zemke oversaw lend-lease deliveries of P-40 fighters to the UK, USSR, and China (to a smaller extent).
  • During his time in these countries, Zemke crossed cultural and political gaps between the western and eastern Allied forces.
    • He also got a closer look at the Luftwaffe than most other American pilots would get until 1942.
  • Zemke developed and applied new tactics for bomber escort and fighter suppression that became a standard for other units in the Army Air Corps.
  • Zemke survived being shot down by God.
  • Zemke met Hanns Scharff, famous Axis interrogator and Disney mosaic designer.
  • Zemke ably represented the prisoners at Stalag Luft 1, and protected them against being put on a death march by retreating German forces. He spoke German, too.
  • He also guarded the prisoners from being shipped to Communist controlled Odessa and presumably having their souls devoured by Stalin. Zemke was fluent in Russian.
  • Hubert Zemke kind of looked like Tom Hanks.

Hubert Zemke was an impossibly useful human being.


Sources

  • W.Smith, Mary.  World War II - Prisoners of War - Stalag Luft I.  http://www.merkki.com/.
    • Just as an aside, Merkki is a site that's crammed full of fascinating stories.
  • “Zemke, Hubert A. ‘Hub.’” Atlantikwall - Batterie D'Azeville - Azeville - TracesOfWar.com, www.tracesofwar.com/persons/46544/Zemke-Hubert-A-Hub.htm?c=aw.
  • “Secrets of the Nazi Interrogators.” HistoryNet, 25 Apr. 2018, www.historynet.com/secrets-nazi-interrogators.htm.

Heroes & Villains - Franz Von Werra

The Luftwaffe's Lion-Taming, Escapist Fighter Ace!

My first H&V of the year. I'm going to be trying out some slightly different formatting for this one. If I decide I like the formatting, I may go back and revamp some older entries. First off, I'm going to dress up my articles with sensational (but true) headlines. Like a 50's stag mag. 50's stag mags knew how to get attention and interest.

  Franz Von Werra and Simba inspecting his Bf 109 E-4. They're checking out the MG FF/M cannon in the wing. I believe this was taken in August of 1940. (That's just an educated guess, however)

Franz Von Werra and Simba inspecting his Bf 109 E-4. They're checking out the MG FF/M cannon in the wing. I believe this was taken in August of 1940. (That's just an educated guess, however)

Franz Von Werra joined the Luftwaffe in 1936, and qualified as a fighter pilot by 1938. Upon the formation of the fighter group Jagdgeschwader 3 , he was assigned as an officer, and flew combat over France, scoring 4 kills by the time the invasion was over.

Von Werra maintained a reputation as an eccentric upper-class playboy. His squadron had a pet lion named Simba, and photographs of the man often feature this mascot. He often returned from missions with wild tales of impossible feats and odds. His penchant for tall tales earned him the nickname Baron, a reference to the fictional Baron Münchausen, who also spun tall tales of adventure and achievement. On August 28 of 1940, he returned from a sortie claiming to have downed 9 RAF Hurricanes after getting separated from his squad.

  Another picture with his lion cub. I wonder if it was concerned that the British Spitfire would turn out to be more than a match for the Bf 109 E series.

Another picture with his lion cub. I wonder if it was concerned that the British Spitfire would turn out to be more than a match for the Bf 109 E series.

Soon, Von Werra would have an opportunity to make his facts much more impressive than his fiction. September 5th, 1940, The Bf 109 E-4 "Black >" of Stab II./JG3 (Von Werra's fighter) crash landed in Kent.

The exact circumstances aren't entirely clear, but here's what I've determined. Von Werra's plane was damaged (possibly by friendly fire, possibly by P/O Bennions of the RAF), causing him to drop altitude over the Kent district of England. An RAF pilot named Gerald Stapleton reported engaging a wounded fighter matching Black >'s description in that area, forcing it down in a field outside Marden, Kent. Also according to Stapleton, Von Werra was apprehended by an unarmed cook who had been manning a searchlight.

  British soldiers at the "Black >" wreck. That's an annoying name, but I'm pretty sure that's how the name is supposed to be written.

British soldiers at the "Black >" wreck. That's an annoying name, but I'm pretty sure that's how the name is supposed to be written.

Actually, the Brits got some great photos out of this wreck and I'd hate to have them go to waste.

  "Commander, an extensive review of the wreck turned up suspicious amounts of pussy hair. We'll be wanting to let the folks at Bletchley know about this."

"Commander, an extensive review of the wreck turned up suspicious amounts of pussy hair. We'll be wanting to let the folks at Bletchley know about this."

The Brits put Von Werra's smug ass to work at Maidstone Barracks, digging ditches. He attempted to overpower a guard with his pickaxe, and was moved to a slightly more prison-y location, Grizedale Hall

  Everywhere in England is castles. Even their homeless shelters are castles. Hell, this image is proof that even their goddamned prisons are castles.

Everywhere in England is castles. Even their homeless shelters are castles. Hell, this image is proof that even their goddamned prisons are castles.

The Brits, in their eternal quest to be upper-class weirdos, apparently allowed the prisoners at Grizedale to have an escorted walk each day. Von Werra collaborated with the other prisoners to block the guard's view while he slipped away. And it worked! Briefly. After an extensive search, the Home Guard found him in a ditch and dragged him back to prison. This time, he was sent to Camp 13 at Derbyshire.

  Seriously? I wanna go to British war prison.

Seriously? I wanna go to British war prison.

From Camp 13, Von Werra participated in an escape attempt with four other prisoners. They created fake IDs and paperwork to leave the country, and then built a tunnel out of the camp. The plan worked, and all five of them escaped the camp. Four were quickly recaptured, but Von Werra was unaccounted for.

For his part, Von Werra had convinced a local train driver that he was a Dutch pilot, Captain Von Lott, and he needed some help getting back to his unit. During the journey, they were stopped by the police and questioned, but the cops failed to realize the passenger with the heavy accent might have been the person they were looking for.

It wasn't until he was literally in the cockpit of a fueled up British plane, running a quick check and figuring out the controls, did anyone realize he was Franz Von Werra. In the nick of time, he was pulled from the cockpit at gunpoint. The Brits were finally tired of Von Werra's shit, and decided to send him to Canada.

Once they reached Ontario, the Brits put Von Werra on a train to his new home. He and a few other prisoners hopped off the train as soon as they had a chance. Naturally, everyone but Von Werra was quickly captured and put back on the train. He was nowhere to be found.

Von Werra managed to cross the northern border of the United States and made his way to New York City, where the police planned on arresting him for entering the country illegally. I'm not making that up. However, the German embassy demanded his release, and got it. They then shipped him down south to Brazil, and from Brazil, back to the Axis forces.

In October of '41, the Luftwaffe assigned Von Werra to I./JG53, to go fight on the Ostfront. They also issued him one of the new Bf 109 F series, which he put to use downing 12 soviet aircraft (mostly bombers, but his last kill was an Il-2). Then on October 25th, Von Werra was on a practice flight when his engine failed over the North Sea. He was never seen again.

  The Ostfront, where the only thing colder than the weather was the pitch black lump of ash pretending it was Stalin's heart.

The Ostfront, where the only thing colder than the weather was the pitch black lump of ash pretending it was Stalin's heart.

He would be remembered by Germany as a vain playboy, prone to telling tall tales, but who managed the skill and guile to hold up his stories.

The Brits would remember Von Werra as "The One Who Got Away".


Sources

  • Kacha, Petr. Aces of the Luftwaffe - Franz Von Werra, www.luftwaffe.cz/werra.html.
  • http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/12th-october-1956/16/the-thruster
  • https://ww2aircraft.net/forum/threads/done-1-48-bf-109e-4-von-werra-defense-of-britain-atlantic.43991/
  • https://forum.keypublishing.com/showthread.php?73749-Who-shot-down-Franz-Von-Werra
    • This one was a discussion of the circumstances that led to Von Werra getting shot down.
  • https://www.warhistoryonline.com/featured/franz-the-one-that-got-away-von-werra.html

Heroes & Villains - Ho Chi Minh - Part 1

The past century of global politics is a complex story of weird, creepy, unhealthy friendships, unlikely alliances, and shifting loyalties. 

Few people represent the truth of this claim quite as effectively as the North Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh. Ho Chi Minh was a liberator, a subjugator, a terrorist, a savior, a visionary, a censor, a philosopher, and a barbarian.

Above all else, and I write this somewhat grudgingly, Ho Chi Minh was a winner.

  Ho Chi Minh, 1946. Fresh from fighting off the Imperial Japanese.

Ho Chi Minh, 1946. Fresh from fighting off the Imperial Japanese.

Nguyen Sinh Cung was born in Vietnam in 1890. At the time, Vietnam was not a sovereign nation, but rather existed as a component of what was called "French Indo-China". Vietnam was governed by an Emperor, whose government was backed by the French. Though an emperor in title, this regent was little more than an extension of French rule.

That Thanh's father, Nguyen Sinh Sac, was a member of the emperor's court. However, Sinh Sac was not a proponent of French colonialism, and would end up being dismissed for his displeasure with their rule.

When Sinh Cung turned 10, his father, in accordance with confucian naming tradition, re-named his son Nguyen That Thanh (Which apparently means "Accomplished")

 That Thanh's older sister, Nguyễn Thị Thanh (Also called Bạch Liên), was a clerk for the French-vietnamese military. From this position, she facilitated the smuggling of supplies to various anti-french forces within Vietnam. She was sentenced to life imprisonment when caught. There is little information available regarding her after this event. However, based on how totally fair and reasonable colonial governments were, I'm sure she was fine. (I'm guessing she died in prison under less-than-ethical circumstances)

At school, That Thanh learned French. This conflicted with his blossoming nationalist views, but he also felt that knowing French would turn out useful when resisting the colonial government. He also participated in a rally against the colonial taxes of the very poor (He should have brought this up in the 60's. Americans would have appreciated the resemblance). While this could have put his academic carreer at risk, it did not.

After a brief stint as a teacher in Pan Thiet, That Thanh joined the kitchen staff of a French steam-ship. The steamer arrived in France in 1911, at which time he tried unsuccessfully to enroll in a French university.

This rejection turned out to be a blessing, as That Thanh's continued work in the shipping industry gave him a chance to see the world. Also, for those of you noting the year, it meant he was given a chance to avoid the gigantic fucking horrifying war that France was about to be in the literal middle of.

That Thanh got a chance to see America in 1912, when his ship arrived in New York. His stay was brief, however, and by 1913, he was living in Britain, hopping from town to town and doing odd jobs.

At the end of the Great War, Ho Chi Minh participated in an effort to bring the issue of Vietnamese independence to the Versailles peace talks. This appeal was ignored, and Vietnam continued under French rule for the next 28 years. That Thanh's political views became more and more Nationalist, and his committment to communist doctrine strengthened in turn.

In 1920, he began using the name Nguyen Ai Quoc, meaning "Nguyen the Patriot".

  Nguyen That Thanh at a communist gathering in Paris, 1920.

Nguyen That Thanh at a communist gathering in Paris, 1920.

In 1923, Ai Quoc traveled to Moscow to enroll in a Soviet University, as well as become involved in the "Comintern", which was an organization dedicated to the proliferation of the international communist movement.. After two years of university, he became a teacher in Canton, China, where he spent another two years educating not only the locals, but also displaced Vietnamese youth.

At this point in our narrative, I think its becoming clear that once he had left Vietnam, Nguyen Ai Quoc never got too comfortable in any single place. I think that throughout his extensive travels, he never lost sight of what his end-game was. He was going to forge some connections with the international communist community, and then he was going to return to Vietnam and start some serious shit with the Colonial French.

Ai Quoc developed an appreciation for Lenin, who had become a messianic figurehead of Communism. He believed that Lenin was someone who truly understood and elucidated the struggle of the working class versus the arbitrary elite.  Perhaps that's a fair assessment. However, to quote Nietzsche:

"Beware that, when fighting monsters, you yourself do not become a monster... for when you gaze long into the abyss. The abyss gazes also into you."

Were the abyss to glance at Lenin's legacy, it would blink.

In the late 20's, Ai Quoc was on the move again. He passed through Europe, moving south, skirting Africa, and finally ending up in Thailand. From Thailand, he moved back through China, then to Hong Kong, where in 1931 he was arrested by British authorities after participating in a convention that united two Communist Vietnamese organizations into a single entity.

As part of some hazy political maneuvering, the British announced Nguyen Ai Quoc's death at the time of his arrest, then quietly released him in 1933. This may or may not have been a decision influenced by French political pressure. The reason for this deception is dubious at best.

In my next installment, I will discuss Ai Quoc's return to the Soviet Union and mainland China, then his involvement in wicked-awesome resistance against the Imperial Japanese during World War II. Most importantly, I will discuss him finally amassing enough Experience Points to evolve into Ho Chi Minh, "Bringer of Enlightenment."

Sources

Trueman, C N. “Ho Chi Minh.” History Learning Site, History Learning Site, 27 Mar. 2015, www.historylearningsite.co.uk/vietnam-war/ho-chi-minh/.

--

“Who Is Ho Chi Minh? Everything You Need to Know.” Ho Chi Minh Biography, The Famous People, 17 Sept. 2017, www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/ho-chi-minh-46.php.

--

Martinez, Carlos. “Fifty Years on the Frontline: the Revolutionary Contributions of Ho Chi Minh.” Invent the Future, Invent the Future, 19 May 2015, www.invent-the-future.org/2015/05/fifty-years-on-the-frontline-the-revolutionary-contributions-of-ho-chi-minh/.

I'm obligated to note that "Invent the Future" has a very pro-communist bias. That being said, this bias, while distinct, does not diminish the quality of their articles. I believe it is important to reach out to and try to understand people I consider ideological opponents. Thus, I have seen fit to consult Invent the Future's article on Ho Chi Minh to gain a better understanding of his legacy in the eyes of someone who fully supports what he represented.

Heroes & Villains - "Baby Doc" Duvalier

I'm of the belief that a nation shouldn't feel an obligation to like their neighbors. People shouldn't *have* to like anyone. I do feel that nations and people are obligated to acknowledge and notice their neighbors. Here in the United States, I think we've been doing a less than stellar job at recognizing our neighbors.

I am not immune to this. I know basically nothing about Haiti beyond that they suffer greatly from earthquakes and were once a French colony. This article is at least a partial extension of my effort to learn a little bit more about our Haitian neighbors down in the Caribbean.

This entry of "Heroes & Villains" will be focusing on Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier. Until now, the subjects of these entries have been people who are either solidly Heroes, or who fall into a grey area between Heroism and Villainy. Duvalier very solidly falls into the category of Villain. Furthermore, I notice some striking similarities between Baby Doc and another, more current world leader. More on that later.

Let's begin with a brief history of François "Papa Doc" Duvalier, Baby Doc's father. In the late 50's, François Duvalier took control of Haiti on the time-honored "terrifying nationalist" political platform. Within a few years, he had disposed of his political opponents and declared himself President-for-Life.

  And here I thought Brezhnev was going to be the most Bond-villain looking person I ever wrote about.

And here I thought Brezhnev was going to be the most Bond-villain looking person I ever wrote about.

Between 1957 and his death in 1971, Papa Doc built up a private paramilitary police force, crushed all attempts to overthrow him, and ended the lives of over 30,000 Hatian citizens. He also kept the head of a political opponent in his closet and claimed he communicated with the spirits of the dead through it, which, while horrible and evil, is pretty fucking metal. After 20 years of running a well organized oppressive terrorist government, François died in 1971, and power was transfered to his 19 year old son, Jean-Claude.

  "No, Mr. Bond, I expect you to die."

"No, Mr. Bond, I expect you to die."

Quietly, the people of Haiti hoped their new leader would prove less bloodthirsty than his father. Technically, he was. Unfortunately, this meant Jean-Claude Duvalier chose to stay aloof and ignorant of the evils of his father's established regime. His private army continued to menace the people of Haiti, and the nation continued to stagnate and suffer.

  He looks so naive. And looks do not deceive here.

He looks so naive. And looks do not deceive here.

Papa Doc always put on a good show of claiming he was being misrepresented by the press of other nations. Throughout his run as president-for-life, he insisted that Haiti was a major economic and social power in the Caribbean and that shunning him was a mistake for his neighbors. I have my doubts that Francois Duvalier actually believed any of this, but then again, we're talking about a man who kept the severed head of a political enemy to facilitate communication with the dead.

Jean-Claude, on the other hand, truly believed he was the rightful heir to a glorious legacy that was the greatest thing to ever happen to the Haitian people. Baby Doc's was not a calculated, planned evil, but rather an evil born from delusion and egomania. His father's private army, the Tonton Macoute, continued its reign of terror over the people of Haiti. The Haitian economy continued to stagnate, and the nation fell yet further into poverty. As of the time of me writing this, Haiti continues to be in a very unhealthy economic position.

I feel that Baby Doc shares many traits with the current leader of North Korea, Kim Jong Un. Both inherited control of their nation from their father. Both seem impossibly naive compared to their fathers. And both do not seem to understand what actually occurs during their own regimes.

Baby Doc and Kim Jong Un were taught from a very early age that they could do no wrong, that their regime was the greatest thing possible for their nations. They were taught their whole lives that objections from outsiders to their government were the result of those outsiders being evil, misguided, and jealous of their success. And in regards to both of them, the rest of the world is not at all sure how to handle the situation.

To be honest, I expected to have a lot more to say about Baby Doc, but he's actually kind of lackluster compared to his father. There is, however, one anecdote worth passing along. One that highlights Baby Doc's shortcomings when it comes to the world of villainy.

One of my main sources for this article was an article by Majorie Valbrun. Valbrun's family fled Baby Doc's Haiti when she was very young. For most of her life, he was the horrifying monster under the bed and in the closet, but also actually real. Valbrun grew up to be a successful American journalist, and, following his exile from Haiti in the 80's, she tried desperately hard for many years to get an interview with him.

Finally in 2003, she got that interview. Valbrun got to meet, shake hands with, and take some selfies with the monster that was behind pretty much everything bad that had ever happened to her or the people she cared about. It's not surprising that her first order of business at the venue of the interview, a hotel in Paris, was to have a nervous breakdown and contemplate avoiding the interview altogether.

  How to put this politely..... It looks like someone took the figurative sands of time and literally scoured Duvalier's face with it.

How to put this politely..... It looks like someone took the figurative sands of time and literally scoured Duvalier's face with it.

But then Valbrun discovered something very perverse. Duvalier was a pretty poor excuse for a monster. He expressed pride that he could meet a successful American reporter who was born in his Haiti, which I imagine was pretty disarming. Then he spent a fair portion of the interview talking about how the rest of the world had it out for him, that they just didn't understand the good he was doing for his people. It became clear that he, himself, had no idea what sort of a regime he was in charge of. He had no idea that his private army was raping and murdering the population of Haiti into compliance. They were just his national guard.

Ignorance is never an acceptable excuse for terrorism, but given the parallels my mind draws between Jean-Claude Duvalier and Kim Jong Un.... perhaps it's an explanation for how casually it is administered.

  I'm feeling pretty down as I conclude this article. To try and end on a mirthful note, I'd like to observe that, in my opinion, the trustworthiness and overall qualification of the leaders in this photo are, in ascending rank, arranged from front to back.

I'm feeling pretty down as I conclude this article. To try and end on a mirthful note, I'd like to observe that, in my opinion, the trustworthiness and overall qualification of the leaders in this photo are, in ascending rank, arranged from front to back.

 

Main Sources for this Article :
Valbrun, Majorie. "Baby Doc Duvalier terrorized my country and haunted me. Meeting him wasn’t what I expected." Washington Post . 15 Oct. 2014. Web. 8 June 2017. <https://goo.gl/YVihE5>.
Hanes, Stephanie. "Jean-Claude Duvalier, ex-Haitian leader known as Baby Doc, dies at 63." Washington Post. N.p., 4 Oct. 2014. Web. 8 June 2017. <https://goo.gl/qJpaU9>.